Wellness: Wellness is the optimal state of health of individuals and groups. There are two focal concerns: the realization of the fullest potential of an individual physically, psychologically, socially, spiritually and economically, and the fulfilment of one’s role expectations in the family, community, place of worship, workplace and other settings. Reference: New definition Source: WHO Health… Read More

Sustainable health promotion actions

Sustainable health promotion actions: Sustainable health promotion actions are those that can maintain their benefits for communities and populations beyond their initial stage of implementation. Sustainable actions can continue to be delivered within the limits of finances, expertise, infrastructure, natural resources and participation by stakeholders. Reference: New definition Achieving the changes in risk factors and… Read More

Social marketing

Social marketing: Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis, planning, execution and evaluation of programs designed to influence the behaviour of target audiences in order to improve the welfare of individuals and society. Modified definition: Andreasen (1995). Social marketing strategies are concerned firstly with the needs, preferences and social and… Read More


Self-efficacy: Perceived self-efficacy refers to beliefs that individuals hold about their capability to carry out action in a way that will influence the events that affect their lives. Modified definition: Bandura (1994) Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. This is demonstrated in how much effort people will expend and how… Read More

Needs assessment

Needs assessment: A systematic procedure for determining the nature and extent of health needs in a population, the causes and contributing factors to those needs and the human, organizational and community resources which are available to respond to these. Reference: Modified definition (Last, 2001; Wright, 2001) Needs assessment is an early step in planning a… Read More

Health impact assessment

Health impact assessment: Health impact assessment is a combination of procedures, methods and tools by which a policy, program, product, or service may be judged concerning its effects on the health of the population. Reference: Modified definition (WHO Regional Office for Europe, 1999). Health impact assessment is usually conducted at the local or regional level,… Read More

Global health

Global health: Global health refers to the transnational impacts of globalization upon health determinants and health problems which are the beyond the control of individual nations. Reference: Modified definition (Lee, 2003) Issues on the global health agenda include the inequities caused by patterns of international trade and investment, the effects of global climate change, the… Read More

Evidence-based health promotion

Evidence-based health promotion: The use of information derived from formal research and systematic investigation to identify causes and contributing factors to health needs and the most effective health promotion actions to address these in given contexts and populations. Reference: New definition As a field which recognizes that health needs can be addressed by action at… Read More

Burden of disease

Burden of disease: The burden of disease is a measurement of the gap between a population’s current health and the optimal state where all people attain full life expectancy without suffering major ill-health. Reference: Modified definition (WHO, 2000). Burden of disease analysis enables decision makers to identify the most serious health problems facing a population.… Read More