Enabling: In health promotion, enabling means taking action in partnership with individuals or groups to empower them, through the mobilization of human and material resources, to promote and protect their health. Reference: new definition The emphasis in this definition on empowerment through partnership, and on the mobilization of resources draws attention to the important role of health… Read More


Epidemiology: Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems. Reference: Last, JM. Dictionary of Epidemiology. UK, 1988 Epidemiological information, particularly that defining individual, population and/or physical environmental risks has been at the core of public… Read More

Equity in health

Equity in health: Equity means fairness. Equity in health means that people’s needs guide the distribution of opportunities for well-being. Reference: Equity in health and health care. WHO, Geneva, 1996 The WHO global strategy of achieving Health for All is fundamentally directed towards achieving greater equity in health between and within populations, and between countries. This… Read More

Evidence-based health promotion

Evidence-based health promotion: The use of information derived from formal research and systematic investigation to identify causes and contributing factors to health needs and the most effective health promotion actions to address these in given contexts and populations. Reference: New definition As a field which recognizes that health needs can be addressed by action at… Read More

Global health

Global health: Global health refers to the transnational impacts of globalization upon health determinants and health problems which are the beyond the control of individual nations. Reference: Modified definition (Lee, 2003) Issues on the global health agenda include the inequities caused by patterns of international trade and investment, the effects of global climate change, the… Read More


Health: Health is defined in the WHO constitution of 1948 as: A state of complete physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Within the context of health promotion, health has been considered less as an abstract state and more as a means to an end which can be expressed… Read More

Health behaviour

Health behaviour: Any activity undertaken by an individual, regardless of actual or perceived health status, for the purpose of promoting, protecting or maintaining health, whether or not such behaviour is objectively effective towards that end. Reference: Health Promotion Glossary, 1986 It is possible to argue that almost every behaviour or activity by an individual has an… Read More

Health communication

Health communication: Health communication is a key strategy to inform the public about health concerns and to maintain important health issues on the public agenda. The use of the mass and multimedia and other technological innovations to disseminate useful health information to the public, increases awareness of specific aspects of individual and collective health as… Read More

Health development

Health development: Health development is the process of continuous, progressive improvement of the health status of individuals and groups in a population. Reference: Terminology Information System. WHO, Geneva, 1997 The Jakarta Declaration describes health promotion as an essential element of health development. Source: Health Promotion Glossary (1998), WHO/HPR/HEP/98.1

Health education

Health education: Health education comprises consciously constructed opportunities for learning involving some form of communication designed to improve health literacy, including improving knowledge, and developing life skills which are conducive to individual and community health. Reference: modified definition Health education is not only concerned with the communication of information, but also with fostering the motivation, skills and… Read More