Deductive Logic

Deductive Logic: The branch of logic that studies the principles of entailment — the situation that occurs when one proposition follows necessarily from another, or others. This happens when it is impossible for the premises of the argument to be true and the conclusion false. This relationship is sometimes also called implication. Entailment (implication) instantiates the… Read More

Argumentation (or Reasoning) Schemes:

Argumentation (or Reasoning) Schemes: Patterns of reasoning or argument — both very general ones, and also more detailed instances of those general ones.These schemes thus represent types of argument or reasoning. Accordingly, there are schemes in general, for example, for argument from analogy or argument from authority. (General analogy: “X is like Y, and Y has property P, so probably/presumably X has property P also.” General Authority: “A says S; A is an authority about… Read More

Argumentation theory (or the theory of argumentation)

Argumentation theory (or the theory of argumentation): The multidisciplinary inquiry that studies argument and argumentation with a view to dealing with normative, conceptual, and empirical issues. For example an important normative question is: What are the norms for argument, and how are they to be identified, justified? And important conceptual question is: What are the various… Read More

Argumentation

Argumentation: The give and take of arguments in a dispute or the body of arguments used to try to support a controversial position. In this context (or practice), one side constructs and forwards arguments to an audience, which may then raise questions, doubts or objections. The arguer typically responds by producing  arguments to  answer  those questions,  doubts   or objects,… Read More

Vindication of general rules

Vindication of general rules: Showing that action in accordance with such rules is well-suited to achieve some specified end at a reasonable cost, i.e., that the rules have pragmatic utility. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership… Read More

Verifiability theory

Verifiability theory: Proposed criterion of empirical meaningfulness for sentences, based on their complete verifiability by observation sentences. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Validation of particular rules

Validation of particular rules: Showing that the rules are warranted by more general rules. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Valid argument schema

Valid argument schema: An argument form or skeleton such that if its variables are appropriately replaced making all its premises true, then its conclusion must be true (assuming no methodological flaws in the argument). Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume… Read More

Valid argument

Valid argument: An interpretation of a valid argument schema. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Unsound argument

Unsound argument: An argument with at least one false premise, an invalid logical schema, a methodological flaw, or any combination of these defects. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford,… Read More