Epistemic utility

Epistemic utility: The value of scientific hypotheses (including laws and theories) insofar as they are, for example, true, consistent with other claims believed to be true and precise. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia… Read More

Epistemology

Epistemology: philosophy of knowledge and cognition. This is a central field of philosophy concerned with the nature, grounds and limits of knowledge: a generally unrecognized realm of value judgment and theory insofar as judgments rest on elective norms of “true” and “false” and “valid” and “invalid”. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values… Read More

Essentialism

Essentialism: A metaphysical theory which maintains that the truth of existing things is an inner principle of determination known only to the mind, not the senses. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of… Read More

Ethics

Ethics: the critical study of the grounds and directive principles of good and bad, right and wrong. One of the three recognized basic areas of philosophy that which is concerned with what is good and bad in human action, including competing positions of utilitarianism, deontological/formalist/duty ethics, emotivism/non-cognitivism, evolutionary ethics, intuitionism, naturalism, perfectionism, phenomenological ethics, postmodern ethics,… Read More

Existentialism

Existentialism: literary and philosophical movement rooted in the analysis of individual human choice and experience. Classically defined by Jean-Paul Sartre as “existence precedes essence”, which means that human choice of what one does (existence) precedes any set fate, determinism, role or external design (essence) ruling out this choice, with those denying their responsibility of choice as… Read More

Externalism

Externalism: Any standpoint or theory which denies the inner fields of thought and feeling or, conversely, restricts reality to space-occupying states. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Externalist fallacy

Externalist fallacy: A monolithic error common in scientistic assumptions whose fallacy may be defined as whatever adopts the following logical form of supposition or argument. What is observable as external phenomena rules out as valid what is internally experienced. The error of this ruling metaphysic proceeds in three steps: (1) what is not externally observable and (2) not measurable… Read More