Natural kinds

Natural kinds: A concept introduced by Saul Kripke to refer to basic names like those for water or the human species which retain their meaning in every context whatever, and which are “rigid designators” of their referents, not merely conventional signs but necessary in all worlds. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All… Read More

Nature

Nature: In the broadest terms, the totality of what exists at all levels in the universe. In its narrower signification, nature refers to the non-humanly constructed environment of life and life-support systems. In the history of speculative metaphysics, nature also refers to the essence of things, or that defining feature which distinguishes kinds of things from… Read More

Need

Need: That without which life capacity is reduced. An objective requirement of continued organic existence and health. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Needs

Needs: The universal means or resources required to maintain life (satisfy life-interests) and realize life-value. The real life-requirements of living beings, defined by Prof John McMurtry as that without which their organic capacities are reduced. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World… Read More

Negation

Negation: The denial of a sentence. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Negative Dialectics

Negative Dialectics: Adorno’s term for a relentlessly critical form of thought that refuses to accept any conceptual synthesis as adequate to the reality it conceives. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support… Read More

No Harm Principle

No Harm Principle: One ought to act so that one’s actions tend not to harm any one. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Nominalism

Nominalism: See Universals. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Non-intentional consciousness

Non-intentional consciousness: Consciousness which is not consciousness of something. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Non-positional consciousness

Non-positional consciousness: Consciousness which is not from any position within the situation on which it reflects. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11.