Ensoulment

Ensoulment: coming into being or insertion of a soul into a corporeal entity. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Epidemiology

Epidemiology: Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems. Reference: Last, JM. Dictionary of Epidemiology. UK, 1988 Epidemiological information, particularly that defining individual, population and/or physical environmental risks has been at the core of public… Read More

Epistemic

Epistemic: Broadly construed, ‘epistemic’ means the cognitive relationship between human minds and the world, the general sphere of conceptual relationships and the higher order logical rules that are thought to govern that relationship in a given epoch of knowledge. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by… Read More

Epistemic utility

Epistemic utility: The value of scientific hypotheses (including laws and theories) insofar as they are, for example, true, consistent with other claims believed to be true and precise. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia… Read More

Epistemology

Epistemology: philosophy of knowledge and cognition. This is a central field of philosophy concerned with the nature, grounds and limits of knowledge: a generally unrecognized realm of value judgment and theory insofar as judgments rest on elective norms of “true” and “false” and “valid” and “invalid”. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values… Read More

Equity in health

Equity in health: Equity means fairness. Equity in health means that people’s needs guide the distribution of opportunities for well-being. Reference: Equity in health and health care. WHO, Geneva, 1996 The WHO global strategy of achieving Health for All is fundamentally directed towards achieving greater equity in health between and within populations, and between countries. This… Read More

Essentialism

Essentialism: A metaphysical theory which maintains that the truth of existing things is an inner principle of determination known only to the mind, not the senses. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of… Read More

Ethics

Ethics: the critical study of the grounds and directive principles of good and bad, right and wrong. One of the three recognized basic areas of philosophy that which is concerned with what is good and bad in human action, including competing positions of utilitarianism, deontological/formalist/duty ethics, emotivism/non-cognitivism, evolutionary ethics, intuitionism, naturalism, perfectionism, phenomenological ethics, postmodern ethics,… Read More

Evidence-based health promotion

Evidence-based health promotion: The use of information derived from formal research and systematic investigation to identify causes and contributing factors to health needs and the most effective health promotion actions to address these in given contexts and populations. Reference: New definition As a field which recognizes that health needs can be addressed by action at… Read More

Existentialism

Existentialism: literary and philosophical movement rooted in the analysis of individual human choice and experience. Classically defined by Jean-Paul Sartre as “existence precedes essence”, which means that human choice of what one does (existence) precedes any set fate, determinism, role or external design (essence) ruling out this choice, with those denying their responsibility of choice as… Read More