Natural kinds

Natural kinds: A concept introduced by Saul Kripke to refer to basic names like those for water or the human species which retain their meaning in every context whatever, and which are “rigid designators” of their referents, not merely conventional signs but necessary in all worlds. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All… Read More


Nature: In the broadest terms, the totality of what exists at all levels in the universe. In its narrower signification, nature refers to the non-humanly constructed environment of life and life-support systems. In the history of speculative metaphysics, nature also refers to the essence of things, or that defining feature which distinguishes kinds of things from… Read More