Primary Axiom of Value

Primary Axiom of Value: An axiom formally expressing the first and ultimate principle of all value and disvalue, and the measures of each across time, place or culture i.e., x is of value if and only if, and to the extent that, x consists in or enables more coherently inclusive thought/felt being/action. See also Fields… Read More

Primary health care

Primary health care: Primary health care is essential health care made accessible at a cost a country and community can afford, with methods that are practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable. Reference: Alma Ata Declaration, WHO, Geneva, 1978 The Alma-Ata Declaration, also emphasises that everyone should have access to primary health care, and everyone should… Read More

Principle of Beneficence

Principle of Beneficence: One ought to act so that one’s actions tend to impartially improve the quality of life. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Prisoner’s Dilemma

Prisoner’s Dilemma: Famous contemporary problem of rational choice across philosophy and the social sciences in which the dilemma shows that purely self-maximizing decision does not effectively self-maximize. Myriad attempted solutions do not find the problem in the logical structure of choice itself in which pre-set dyadic choices rule out communicative cooperation and all interests beyond self-maximization. (See also Collective… Read More