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Report on the National Crime Reduction Symposium and Follow-up Workshop held on 9th February 2017 in St. Kitts and 2nd March 2017 in Nevis



Table of Contents 


Introduction: Summary Report on Symposium

Comprehensive National Crime Reduction and Prevention Strategy

Outline of Crime Reduction and Prevention Strategies Proposed by Stakeholder Groups to Address the Various Roots of Crime

Miscellaneous Strategies and Recommendations

Tabulating Crime Statistics to Capture Roots of Crime Data



Dr. Hon. Timothy Harris, Prime Minister

Hon. Vance Amory, Senior Minister and Premier of Nevis

Other Members of Cabinet

Mrs. Josephine Huggins, Cabinet Secretary

Mrs. Hilary Hazel, Financial Secretary, Ministry of Finance

Dr. Neals Chitan, Crime Reduction Specialist

Mr. John Kroen, Chairman, and Member of Business Associates of the Coalition of Support for St. Kitts and Nevis Security Initiatives (Sponsor of the Symposium); special mention of Mr. Veron Lake of Ross University, the Management of St. Kitts Marriott Resort and Four Seasons Resort in Nevis

Permanent Secretary and other staff of the Premier’s Ministry, Nevis; particularly Ms. Margaret Scarborough

The Commissioner of Police, and members of the Police High Command, and senior officers of the RSCN Police Force in St. Kitts and Nevis

Inspector Rosemarie Isles Joseph (for out-reach and general liaison support on behalf of the Permanent Secretary, National Security)

FSO Catherine Joseph (for out -reach support in Nevis on behalf of the Permanent Secretary, National Security)

Mr. Percy Daniel (technical support for Dr. Chitan)

Staff of the Ministry of National Security Secretariat

Members of the Criminal Justice Strategic Board

All Participants at the symposium, including representatives of the Security Forces, representatives of various Government Agencies, including Education, Health Care, Social Services and Community Development, Youth Empowerment, stakeholder youth and community organisations, the Clergy/ Church Organisations, the Judiciary, Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition, SKN Trades & Labour Union, Chamber of Industry and Commerce, other business, special interest and professional groups, the Media, and specially invited individuals

Dr. Patrick Martin, M.D. (for proposed new direction for crime statistics)

ZIZ Broadcasting Corporation


The major outcome of the National Crime Reduction Symposium held in St. Kitts on 9th February 2017 and the Follow-up Workshop in Nevis on 2nd March 2017 is the elaboration of a National Crime Reduction and Prevention Strategy that will be coordinated by the Ministry of National Security, and by extension, the Government of St. Kitts and Nevis, through close collaboration with the various stakeholder groups that participated in the symposium.

At the outset, the Ministry of National Security wishes to extend sincere appreciation to the private sector Coalition of Support for St. Kitts and Nevis Security Initiatives for providing generous financial sponsorship for hosting the symposium and follow-up workshop in Nevis.

The Hon. Prime Minister, Dr. Timothy Harris, in his remarks to commence the symposium, provided an overview of the background determinants that showed the need for a national crime symposium. These included references to creating interagency teams, development of victim support mechanisms, and other community policing engagements listed in the Police Six Point Plan, the Strategic Plan and Service Improvement Plan 2016-2019; and, more recently, interaction with senior personnel from the Regional Security System (RSS) during the planning of Operations ‘ Safe Street’ in September -October 2016, who stressed the importance of convening a Stakeholders’ Meeting. The Hon. Prime Minister also elaborated on the root causes of crime which are well documented and researched. He noted that crime is primarily the outcome of multiple adverse social, economic, cultural and family conditions. To prevent crime it is important to have an understanding of its roots. These are complex and interrelated, but can be summarized in three main categories:

  • Economic Factors/Poverty.
  • Social Environment
  • Family Structures

There have been documentary papers submitted to government over the years which have elaborated on different approaches to crime prevention. These include: criminal justice approach; crime prevention through environmental design, which focuses on designing environments that can potentially encourage desirable behaviours in people; integrated citizen security approaches; and public health approaches which focus on identifying and addressing the symptoms that are evident in the behaviours of at-risk youth.

However, what was needed was a fairly simple but powerful crime reduction framework that could be used to guide crime reduction and prevention efforts in the Federation.

The EDER framework proposed by Dr. Neals Chitan, International Motivational Speaker and Crime Reduction Specialist, was considered to be ideal.

Dr. Chitan’s copyrighted framework EDER is an acronym for:

  • Enforcement
  • Diagnosis
  • Education
  • Rehabilitation

Enforcement refers primarily to the work of our law enforcement and other security forces. The Police Six Point Plan, for example, and any other plan that is developed by the police to target criminals and enforce the laws of the Federation (for example, plans to improve the traffic laws and provide traffic control), are all related to the Enforcement component of EDER. However , other forms of enforcement take place in the home and school, as rules are enforced that require improved discipline, courtesy and, generally, desirable behaviours in children .

In June 2016, following a consultation visit to St. Kitts and Nevis, one of the recommendations for follow-up proposed by Dr. Chitan was the conduct of a National Crime Reduction Symposium. This diagnostic arm of the EDER© Approach “UPROOTING CRIME & VIOLENCE” Conference was therefore planned to swing into place as soon as possible during Dr. Chitan’s assignment, engaging a cross section of stakeholders in discovering and addressing twelve psychosocial roots that feed prevalent crimes.

Roots addressed. Dr. Neals Chitan, as the Key Note Presenter at the symposium, delivered on the following twelve psychosocial roots of crime:

*Mental Illness

*Unmanaged Impulses

*Uncontrolled Confrontations

*Criminal Deportation

*Addictions and Compulsions

*Inability to deal with consequences

*Media, Music and Web Influence

*Greed and Selfishness

*Image and profile enhancement

*Hopelessness and Desperation

*Matters of the Heart

*Loss, Grief and Hurt

Disrespect.  Dr. Chitan informed the audience that, after much observation and analysis, he had come to the conclusion that despite the social dysfunctions that may form the foundation for the crime we see in our communities, there is a major root feeding most criminal behavior. According to Dr. Chitan, as we dissect the incidences of homicides, robbery, sexual assaults, domestic violence, child abuse and other such crimes, we can safely conclude that the common element that allows an individual to commit these crimes is disrespect.

Dr. Chitan indicated that in order to properly discuss disrespect, we first have to understand what respect is, and offered his personal definition. “Respect is a basic level of unqualified filial appreciation, regard and consideration people extend to each other, not because of what they own, earn or have done, but merely because of who they are-Humans.”

The idea of someone earning another person’s respect is a notion that sets the stage for confrontations and violence. Unless we reach the point of giving unqualified repect, individuals can easily trigger disrespect from us by firstly pressing our buttons with their disrespect. Quote: ‘I do not respect you because of the respect you show me. I respect you because you are a member of my race-the human race, and nothing can disqualify you’. Using this as one’s modus operandi, encourages consideration, sympathy and assessment towards the confronting individual while invoking pity and understanding in you towards him/her.

However, there is one instance where disrespect may not necessarily be considered the root of crime, and that is in the case of mental illness, where crime is driven by mental malfunctions and where perpetrators may not be held accountable for their actions.

A summary of the presentation by Dr. Chitan on the twelve roots of crime has been appended to this report.

At the end of the presentation participants met in professional or special interest groups. The root(s) that was (were) considered most germane to their profession were identified and, using the official work sheets provided, participants discussed and built at least one relevant strategy to address that root.

Follow up activity: All the worksheets and strategies were collected, and at the Follow- up Workshop in Nevis, using the EDER© Framework, a smaller group of participants further elaborated on the roots of crime and categorized them where possible under one of the four EDER components, thus building a national comprehensive strategy.

The symposium brought together about 200 participants, including : Principals, Teachers, Education Officers, Guidance Counsellors, PTAs Reps, Social Workers, Youth Group Representatives, Police (all levels), Prison Officers, Clergy, Mental Health Professionals, Sociologists, Psychologists, Clinicians, Health Workers, Business CEO’s and other senior staff and Special Interest Groups, and interested Individuals.

As one participant put it, through the Symposium, the Ministry of National Security achieved the aim of creating a “whole of society” networking atmosphere. Including representatives of the Parliamentary Opposition was a good thing although it took some deft interventions to temper passions. It is now up to us to ensure that the outputs and strategies recommended by the participants matched the energy and resources expended on inputs (for example, costs associated with Marriott and Four Seasons resorts) and the throughput (intellectual capital of the organizers, presenters and participants).

As noted by Dr. Chitan, if we are to see a sustainable reduction in crime and violence, it will be a long haul with committed partners who are equipped with relevant strategies and concepts, and the involvement of individuals who can reach the hearts of children, youth and adults. The blazing fires of inspiration, motivation and challenge lit during activities like the National Crime Reduction Symposium can quickly become extinguished as frustrated teachers, counsellors, parents and even law enforcers recoil back to regular routines and comfort zones. The emerging Comprehensive National Crime Reduction and Prevention Strategy is designed to keep the ‘blazing fires ‘ (that were lit during the Symposium) burning as stakeholders focus on doing what THEY committed to do. In so doing, it is hoped that there would be wide spread ownership and buy-in to the emerging Strategy.


Osmond Petty, M.B.E.
Permanent Secretary,
Ministry of National Security


The process that led to the elaboration of the National Crime Reduction and Prevention Strategy may be described as follows.

During the National Crime Reduction Symposium, stakeholder groups identified roots of crime that were germane to their profession and outlined strategies in which THEY would be willing to become engaged to reduce or prevent the occurrence of criminal activities related to the root or roots. Specifically, stakeholder groups responded to the following prompts:

  • How feasible is it to address the root in your profession?
  • What initial activity can you incorporate in your work to address this root?
  • Create an attention grabbing caption that can be used in your work to initiate a campaign to address this
  • Describe a long term strategy that can be used in your work to address this root in a sustainable
  • What measuring tool does your profession have in place or you can suggest for evaluating success of your strategy?

As can be expected, stakeholder groups and professionals with similar spheres of operation and interests worked on the same roots and many of the suggestions overlapped. The suggestions pertaining to the various roots of crime have therefore been grouped and summarised in a simple two- column tabular format, viz: Column One – Crime Prevention Strategies, and Column Two – Implementation Considerations. This will allow for much easier intersectoral discussion, interaction and planning during implementation.

The strategy is for all of the stakeholder groups to further develop and implement the strategies and activities that THEY identified to address each root of crime. The Ministry of National Security will play a supporting and coordinating role in assisting the various stakeholder groups in the planning and implementation of strategies identified.

It is accepted that Government is the central player in actualizing crime prevention and reduction strategies. Therefore, the Criminal Justice Strategic Board (CJSB) will be charged with the responsibility of monitoring the implementation of this Strategy. The membership of the CJSB will be broadened to ensure that there is more adequate representation from Government Departments in Nevis, as well as, representation from Youth, Health Care, Community Development and the People’s Empowerment Department in St. Kitts to add to the existing membership. The relevant member(s) of the CJSB will be responsible for coordinating in their respective departments, the implementation of strategies pertinent to the selected roots of crime

The Office of the Permanent Secretary of National Security will be strengthened to provide support to the CJSB and function as a liaison to mobilize stakeholder groups. It is also recommended that Dr. Neals Chitan be contracted to work with the Office of the Permanent Secretary to aggressively and systematically continue his work in addressing the roots of crime with youth and parents, gang members etc. at the community level, and to continue his work with students in our schools.

The detailed outline of crime reduction and prevention strategies proposed by stakeholder groups to address the various roots of crime is presented in the next section. The general strategies presented by the representatives of the Clergy/Church have been presented upfront as an indication that the Ministry of National Security supports the biblical grounding of the teachings of the Church as the general way forward. Additionally, the strategies relating to Hopelessness and Desperation as a root of crime have been brought forward given that this root has economic and social implications, as it relates to the perceived impact of unemployment and poverty on criminal activity in the Federation.



(Including Representatives of the Christian Council, Evangelical Association and the Seventh Day Adventist Church) 

There is need to conduct an aggressive programme of teaching and highlighting the destabilizing effects of crime and violence on parents, family, society, community, church, economy, government and the judicial system; thereby mobilising all institutions working towards stability in the country.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
1. Generate further and continued discussion to continue to highlight and evaluate the psychological profile of the root causes of crime and violence as outlined by Dr. Chitan.
2, Establish a plan to provide support activities to families and communities where they are likely to produce criminal mindedness. For example, types of support may be: psychological, social, communal, intellectual, legal and economical; where possible, minimize poverty.
Education Slogans:
3.  Emphasise character building, value of self worth, with a moral underpinning.

4.  Embark on plans to foster community caring.

5.. Teach the value of sound discipline for model citizenry.

6. Establish a caring facility to give spiritual, moral, psychological and educational guidance to youths -at-risk.

7.Emphasise sound Bible teaching.

‘YES to Economic Empowerment, Academic Achievement; NO to Crime and Violence’

‘YES to Economic Empowerment, Moral Upliftment, Academic Achievement – TO ERADICATE CRIME and VIOLENCE

8.      Provide systematic psychological training and understanding human relations.

9.     Stress accountability.

Training for church leaders, Sunday School teachers, youth leaders in church and community groups, etc.

Training in pastoral counselling.

The Church cont’d:
Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
11. Include crime prevention objectives in Church Vacation School programmes. Presentations on the positive effects of integrity, honesty, chastity, forgiveness, and love of our fellow man.
Making presentations on the destructiveness of addiction to drugs and substance abuse, exposure to pornography, violent content in movies, and cartoons; mental, physical and psychological abuse of children.
12. Expand parenting and family life education.


12(a). Teach and emphasize that corporal punishment should be administered when necessary under strict control to eliminate abuse, and with an objective for correction; administered in love and not in hostility.

Presentations of best practices for stronger, unified and coherent families.


Emphasize the value of adequate, comprehensive, biblical indoctrination for a better society


Aggressively promote regular church attendance and Sunday School attendance. Establish social groups in the community. These are assets to building sound character and, hence, deterring crime and violence.



People bring a wide range of needs to churches. The Clergy and churches are therefore well able to address the root cause of hopelessness and desperation. The Gospel brings ‘hope’ – the name itself means ‘Good News’. People need ‘good news’ and the Church should have it. The Church can provide financial resources to alleviate hunger and provide education and youth programmes to tap financial lending institutions (e.g. SEDU) for resources to accommodate the poor, as well as, fund raising activities, if general sources are insufficient.

The St. Kitts and Nevis Chamber of Industry and Commerce (SKNCIC), through its membership, creates jobs, drives innovation and thereby stimulates economic growth. The SKNCIC is therefore well placed to partner with organisations, such as, the Church to assist in delivery of programmes to alleviate hopelessness and desperation caused by joblessness and other economic factors. The SKNCIC can also work with the Police and Prison Rehabilitation Programmes to assist in getting persons trained and placed in work so that they would have some kind of financial worth.

Finally, through private/ public partnerships coordinated by the Labour Department and other agencies, the unemployment rate can be reduced and avenues for employment can be created thereby enabling criminal offenders to become gainfully employed. A job provide individuals with economic and social needs and satisfaction; they remain above poverty; they are less likely to engage in criminal activities; they can provide for their families. Work enables an individual to contribute to nation building and a sustainable economy.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework)Implementation ConsiderationsDiagnosis, Education, Rehabilitation 1. Provide relief from the immediate condition- meet the need of the present. 2. The Church through its various departments will provide food and clothing in the community.

3.  Diagnose conditions in the church community.

4.  Become more visible through visiting and socializing.

Survey, assess Make friends.

5. Establish support groups, through

(i)      On-going counselling and psychological support;

(ii)       Counselling in financial and management skills; training for the poor.

e.g. Wesleyans of St. Kitts – Nevis have a national ” Stand Out” programme.

On-going youth and children’s programmes.

Slogan: I know who I am; I know where I am going and I know how to get there.

Slogan: Feed the hungry, save lives!The SKN Chamber of Industry and Commerce 6. Pursue greater involvement in education reform and curriculum development. 7. Introduce and/or support of career drills and career guidance initiatives. 8. Roll out of the SKNCIC Internship Program that focuses more on skill development than job placement. 9. Establish a council or other body whose mandate is to continuously review changing needs and conduct the necessary supporting surveys, research etc.Longer term10, Build resilience by improving access to skills training.Providing second chances for adult learning. Monitoring mechanisms: (i) Personal development planning to support job retention; (ii) surveys and other feedback mechanisms; (iii) increased job creation in non-traditional or new higher level roles.

Hopelessness and Desperation cont’d

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
Labour Administration Slogan: ‘Everybody must work’ … the key to economic, social and family happiness!
11. Introduce a Labour Market Information System (LMIS) to provide transparency concerning the supply and demand of labour. The LMIS will help in tracking children within the education system, providing data for labour/ vocational training and developing skill sets. Moreover, it offers a fast track access to job offers and job requests; a tool for attracting investors and thereby creating jobs.
12. Create a programme to help criminal offenders back into the world of work through public/private partnership.  

Link with the St. Kitts -Nevis Chamber of Industry and Commerce.

13. Provide social protection to help workers who have been reintegrated. The Department of Labour is developing an Employment Unit that matches skill sets with job seekers and potential employers, training in career guidance and helping workers maintain jobs.

Establish social protection programmes.

Education and Social Services
14.       Develop mentorship programmes that would instill discipline and work ethics into the development of elementary and secondary school students.

15.       Establish a stakeholder’s partnership to identify and adopt troubled primary and secondary school students and enlist them in a three – tier system: Elementary, Intermediate and Advance levels, so that the tracking of progress and development can be monitored.

(i)      Identify and train facilitators.

(ii)       Initiate on the job integration by providing opportunities to visit workplaces.

(iii)       Use of various forms of media to reach intended audience and promote the programme. Slogan:  Hand in hand we can help each one.

(See Strategy 15) The cycle will continue as the different levels of students graduate. Personnel would be rotated and trained every three years. Sponsorship would be sort to finance activities.

Rehabilitation (HMS Prison and New Horizon Centre)

16. A similar programme can be included as part of the Rehabilitation Programme for selected inmates at Her Majesty’s Prison and New Horizon Home.



There is a need to enhance our human capacity to identify and treat mental illness.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
1. Integrate a mental health programme into primary health care. There is also a need to enhance the physical, technical and material resources, including pharmaceutical resources.
2. Advocate for a “Line Item Budget’ for mental health. Initial short term activities include:

Recruitment of additional: (a) Psychiatrists;

(b) Clinical Psychologists; (c) Mental Health Nurse Practitioners: (d) Case Management / Social Workers; (e) Occupational Therapists; (f) Auxiliary Workers

3. Establish an intersectoral approach to mental health (Health, Education, and Social Services). Training: Medical Officers (District Medical Officers, Private Physicians and Nurses; Law Enforcement Officer, Prison Officers, Teachers and Community Workers Increase awareness: Development and dissemination of mental health literature.
Attention grabbing slogans:

‘No health without Mental Health’; ‘Mental Health is a matter for all of us’; ‘ Mental Health is wealth’.

4. Develop an integrated approach to mental health throughout the life cycle from birth. Intersectoral collaboration:

The staff at the HMS Prison and Prison Farm (Nevis) and Psychiatric Ward at

J.N.F. must give the Mental Health Unit(s) advanced notice when clients/patients are being released / discharged.

This would give more time to conduct counselling sessions; (Note: The Prison Farm in Nevis is one of the out-reach projects for the Nevis Mental Health Unit).

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
5. provide on-going training and capacity building. Truancy officers should be re-instated where necessary and assigned to all schools. They should be alert for suspected cases of mental illness.
The Police should promptly inform the Mental Health Unit of persons who appear to be behaving abnormally.
Mental health clinics should be separate from other clinics for adults.
Evaluating Success over time. Measures include determining:
(i)      whether there is an increase in the number of patients with mental illness who are being managed at the primary health care level;

(ii)          whether there is a decrease in the hospital of patients with mental illness; and

(iii)       the extent to which there are cases of early detection of behavioural disorders in children.

Mental Illness cont’d


Police/ law enforcement should establish proper protocol for dealing with persons with mental illness.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
1. Provide training for Police Officers to deal with mentally-challenged persons. (i)      There needs to be proper documentation of persons who are mentally challenged. This requires collaboration involving the Mental Health Unit and Dept. of Community Development/ Social Services. Create a database: Listing of personnel, their disposition, timing and need for their medication/ relevant schedule treatment.

(ii)       Update psychotic drugs as some in use are out-dated.

2. Provide support for families with member(s) with mental illness (security issues,  medication schedule, etc)
3.      Introduction of screening tools, e.g. Beck Inventory.

4.         Conduct psychological evaluations for clients and workers.

Conduct psychological evaluations of selected family members.

Psychological evaluation of police officers. A counsellor should be attached to the Police.

1.        Provide support for families with member(s) with mental illness (understanding and coping issues).

2.     Provide continuous Awareness Training for police officers by counsellors and mental health professionals.

Mental illness cont’d

Police/ law enforcement, Community Development

Crime Prevention Strategies Implementation Considerations
3.  Update Mental Health Act (e.g. as it relates to incarceration or non- incarceration of persons with mental illness; treatment of inmates of HMS Prison with mental illness)


4.  Introduce a ‘half-way house’ for persons with mental illness who are released from prison.




See also strategies previously outlined above: Health Care: “Intersectoral Collaboration’


Slogan: ‘Mental Health- A cry for help!’

5. As a longer term measure, provide a juvenile rehabilitation centre.
Evaluating Success

Database created and updated systematically. Should be available to police in all Policing Districts and at Community Health Centres, capturing relevant and regular schedules of treatment , as well as, availability and use of psychotic drugs.



Aggressively increase Public Relations through existing youth programmes and organisations, in schools and clubs by inviting competent persons on a continuous basis to speak on the negative effects of narcotics and firearms.

The Customs and Excise Department is responsible for protecting the Federation from the dangers that arise from international trade. At the root of these dangers are the illicit actions of persons travelling in and out of the Federation that are willing to facilitate illegal cross-border activity. It is essential, therefore, to strengthen the capacity of the Customs and Excise Department to increase detection and thereby reduce such illegal cross border activity.

There is need to enhance the Federation’s human capacity in the health sector to identify and treat patients with addictive and compulsive behaviours.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
Enforcement Security Forces
1. Ensure and expand continuous aggressive vigilance and eradication. Continually and aggressively check control points, including school entrances/ gates/fences;

Aerial reconnaissance (periodically use RSS airways), drones and GPS.

2. Encourage and support establishment of an Education component in all Sports Clubs and Youth Organisations at community level, irrespective of their main activity. Mandatory workshops on topics such as: drug abuse, situation diffusion/ conflict resolution, and family life.

SloganStop ‘n’ Think before you act!

3. Build profile databases for club members with relevant fields that would keep track of the progress of members during and even after club membership. (For example, the leadership of a Football Club, although the main activity is the Wherever possible assist with classes involving technical skills; Information Technology; sponsor at-risk youth in schools. Members volunteer for After- School programmes; provide financial assistance; attachments, etc.

Drug Use and Addictions cont’d 

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
development of football, should also accept some responsibility to assist in the development of the club members).


Diagnosis and Education


4. Establish and/or strengthen the out- reach programmes of the National Drug Council and Out Reach Centre.

The National Drug Council already has programmes in drug prevention with built in monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.

These should be aggressively strengthened and services made available to clubs and youth organisations.


The National Drug Council should aggressively identify community leaders and group/club leadership, people with influence with whom they can work and strengthen community cooperation in reducing drug use and, consequently, reducing addictions.

5. Establish support groups to assist persons living with addictive and compulsive behaviours. Work with the Health Sector and Community Development to establish relevant support groups to address persons living with addictive and compulsive behaviours.

Collaborate with Drug Prevention and Treatment Specialists within the National Drug Council. Organize counselling sessions.

6. Establish a systematic and sustained programme for residents at HMS Prison who have been incarcerated on drug offences. Collaboration involving: National Drug Council Outreach Centre Health Care
7. Develop a rehabilitation programme for patients with addictive and compulsive behaviours. Collaboration involving: National Drug Council Outreach Centre Health Care

Community Development/ Social Services

8. Formally establish an intersectoral approach to reducing addiction and compulsive behaviours. Health Education Social Services

National Drug Council

Drug Use and Addictions Cont’d 

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
Medium to Longer Term Strategies Evaluation of success of strategies (immediate, short, medium and long term)
9. Advocate for a Rehabilitation Centre. Number of persons presenting for counselling
10. Introduce Parenting Programmes in Primary Health Care. Attendance at continuous education sessions (Recall Slogan: Stop ‘n’ Think before you try drugs!
11. Establish a Pharmacy Inspectorate. Number of clubs, youth organisations with developmental programmes for members
12. Provide sensitization and training of doctors regarding the use of addictive drugs. Number of support groups in the communities
Prescription audits
Patient chart reviews
Patient satisfaction surveys



Human interaction is a daily occurrence that has to be managed responsibly and responded appropriately. Measures must be implemented to prevent fear in the life of individuals, in schools, community groups, at workplaces and other scenarios that involve individuals interacting with each other on a daily basis. Unmanaged impulses can lead to uncontrolled confrontations as such persons vent their frustrations on other individuals. To reduce the incidence of unmanaged impulses will require team work among various groups, assisting individuals to set meaningful goals and to successfully achieve their goals without instilling fear in others.

Sports and games should be used as a means of releasing tension. Children with unmanageable behaviours are able to better control themselves through involvement in sporting activities and when playing games. Incentives could be provided to children for good behaviour, especially in early years. Soothing music/ singing should be a part of school activities. Music has been found to calm down aggressive behaviour. Adult authority figures must approach children in a cool and non-threatening manner in order to connect when unmanaged impulses and uncontrolled confrontations are becoming evident.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
1. Discourage name calling, use of derogatory language (at home, in schools and at all group settings) Have rules on these and enforce them.
2. Vigorously reduce bullying in schools, at work places, during group activities. Hold discussions to discourage cyber bullying. Discuss coping skills if one becomes a victim.
Diagnosis and Education
3.     When unmanaged impulses become evident in someone’s behaviour, find out the root of the problem before seeking assistance for the individual.

4.      Equip counsellors and professionals with diagnostic tools.

In schools: Guidance Counsellors and teachers should engage students in on- going conflict resolution programmes; not just one-off programmes or projects. In businesses and other work places: encourage this to be a focus of the HR department. All workplaces, no matter

Unmanaged Impulses cont’d

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
5.      Provide training for counsellors in providing emotional intelligence.


6.      Introduce management of impulses into Pre- and Post – Natal Education (Social Services to lead with collaboration from the Ministry of Health – for use in Health Centres).


7.      Build management of impulses and controlling confrontations into parental training programmes.


8.      Use Checkers and ART to help develop controlled thinking. Train counsellors to use these tools.


9.      Reinforce, strengthen and re-focus the Child Friendly School Concept. Provide education in all schools to address issues relating to unmanaged impulses and uncontrolled confrontations. Implement related training and mentoring programmes.

how small, should have this as a component  of their worker support.


Introduce early intervention programmes



Include in mentorship programmes for guidance.

Develop visual aids; use the media (print, electronic, social media) to spread images with positive messages and connotations; and alternative options.


Address management of impulses and controlling confrontations during Parent- Teacher Association (PTA) meetings . Involve the Police and SKNDF as resource to give examples of undesirable behaviours and outcomes.


Create Checkers Clubs in schools and communities to develop controlled and focused thinking.


Conduct on-going Anger Management



Emphasise classroom activities that would involve role playing and modelling simulated activities.


Use of Education Media Unit to spread messages and create brochures.

Unmanaged Impulses cont’d 

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
10. Use Mental Health Assessment (MASY) as a standard tool across all sectors: in schools (Education), in the Security Forces (Police, SKNDF, Prison – staff and inmates, New Horizons and other Social Services Groups- e.g. in Project VIOLA, etc.) Confidentiality requirements are to be implemented across the Federation.


Use Polygraph Testing on persons involved in MASY, as long as proper provisions are in place to ensure trust and confidentiality of polygraph results.

11. Develop and implement a programme to be included as part of the general rehabilitation programmes for residents of Her Majesty’s Prison and the New Horizon Centre.  

Programme will include all the elements outlined above but will be more aggressive given that these individuals have taken unmanaged impulses and uncontrolled confrontations to the extreme.

12. Develop rehabilitation programmes to deal jointly with both unmanaged impulses and confrontational control. Evaluation. Use of measuring tools for evaluating success of strategies.
Case studies
Pre and post assessments
Number of persons trained to deal with unmanaged impulses and uncontrolled confrontations



‘Confrontational Control’ as a root of crime is closely related to Unmanaged Impulses. Quite often, the result of Unmanaged Impulses lead to uncontrolled confrontations.

Hence, all of the strategies and implementing measures outlined above for ‘Unmanaged Impulses’ also apply.

However, it is quite feasible for confrontational control to be addressed specifically by schools. This is due to the fact that students are with schools for most of their waking hours each week. Teachers and Guidance Counsellors are able to forge strong relationships with problem children due to proximity and access. There is also a wide range of available resources that can be brought into use to encourage confrontational control.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
1. Establish zero-tolerance for fighting and bullying through appropriate school rules; and enforce rules without fear or favour in an unbiased manner. Slogans:

(i)      STARS Initiative: Safe, Tenacious, Responsive and Secure!

(ii)       See something, hear something, know something, say something!

Support Action

Display school numbers for whatsapp, text, or call

Diagnosis and Education
2. Implement Parental Skills Programme (targeting parents of at-risk youth).
3. Implement Anger Management Programmes focusing on conflict resolution. Formation of special groups divided by gender, focusing on either at-risk students, or those involved in conflict.

Display posters in schools that share positive, de-escalating messages.

4. Arrange transfer of students’ psycho- social records from primary to secondary school.  (Counsellors collaborate). Outreach visits to homes of at-risk students; interactions with students, counsellors and guardians
Create an Evaluation Form/Progress Report for each student who have received special attention.



There are students who come from dysfunctional homes and who display anti-social behaviours. They have low self – esteem due to lack of love at home. Therefore they are driven to multiple sexual partners. They are therefore living below their true potential.

Once such a student is identified in school, counsellors must arrange for them to receive the necessary support. Involve relevant stakeholder groups to work with such students.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
Diagnosis and Education
1. Create awareness and initiative for positive affirmation and praise; recognition and cognition, beliefs and values. Extra-curricular activities; after school programmes to mould positive behaviours
2. Arrange parent empowerment programmes. Slogans/ messages for students and parents:

1.         Life is boring if everyone is the same. Embrace your differences.

2.      Take a look in the mirror … like what you see? Our views about ourselves are shaped by the people around us.

3.         “Stop and Think” before you speak an unkind word about someone else.

3. Educate about body image and self- concept. Counsellors to use as reference, relevant sections from the book by Neals Chitan:
4. Have support groups for children who have one-parent missing. “PULLING THE PLUG”- a practical guide to disarming the downward spiral of Loss, Grief, Depression and Death
5. Arrange on-going education for counsellors on how to deal with under- developed sexual identity. Support groups; use of mentors. Use participants of support groups as co- facilitators to assist their peers.
On-going Evaluation
Anecdotal; observation; case studies. Look for changes in behaviour.
Case studies: Fewer visits to the principal’s office



There are always rules and consequences for breaking rules. This should be instilled very early at Pre-School and Primary School. However, the challenges are that those who should model and uphold, normally break these rules themselves. At each school, there should be orientation for parents, teachers and students, outlining the values, goals, expectations of the school. This should be done at the beginning of every school year, with termly reminders. Invite resource persons occasionally to speak to the student body and teachers. Emphasize: “Stop ‘n’ Think” of the consequences before you engage in some undesirable act.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
Enforcement, Diagnosis and Education
1. Develop a comprehensive Behaviour Management System (BMS); that is, a system that allows educators, parents and students to deal with positive and negative behaviours. This system should allow students to monitor their own behaviours. This is not just a set of school rules. However, school rules are to be enforced as part of the Behaviour Management System.
(1a) Include a mediation programme. The Child Friendly School (CFS) Framework generally includes a philosophy that is in keeping with such a Behaviour Management System.

Therefore build on the CFS and aggressively (re) focus on developing children’s awareness and ability to deal with consequences.

1(b) Include the BMS in school reviews; assessing the teaching & learning environment; extent to which a BMS is in place and being enforced. Get input from students, parents and teachers; as well as resource persons; e.g. Police/ Law Enforcement; Social Services; Counsellors.
Implement an awareness campaign across government departments and the entire nation. e.g. Slogan: If you break it, admit it and together we can fix it.
2. Create referral forms for students. Measuring success: Number of students referred-breaking school rules; bullying .



This root of crime is a challenge because it has a very strong influence among children and young adults and there are no programmes available at this time to deliberately address any negative influences that may emerge. There is therefore need to engage public figures in conversations on the issues (e.g. cyber bullying) and to engage stakeholders to seriously look at the impact this root of crime may be having across the Federation. There are many positives if used properly. These need to be highlighted.

Then outline the reasons, causes and effects of the negative influences.  The media can play a vital role in educating the public and advocating change.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
1. Strengthen and expand cyber crime training and vigilance in the Police Force. Unless there is actual evidence of a successful case, the Cyber Crime Unit of the Police Force will just be in name only. There is need to vigorously follow through on some cases and show results.
2. Encourage and educate parents to monitor their children’s online activity and (cable) television viewing. (a)       School PTAs and Church involvement

(b)       Train a team to assist parents to programme their TVs in homes.

3. Encourage and train reporters to be more sensitive in news reporting.
Diagnosis and Education
4. Seek the necessary sponsorship and use the media to implement a systematic and on-going education programme. Initiate panel discussions. Identify issues that can contribute to crime and strategies as to what media may be used to effectively combat these issues.

Formulate programmes based on the medium chosen.

5. Use social media to counter negativism. The same way that social media is used for spreading negative messages, the same social media can be used to spread

Media, music and Web Influence cont’d

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
positive messages and alert people of the issues like cyber bullying and how to deal avoid the negative influences.
6. An audio studio should be available to develop programming to target special age groups. Encourage volunteerism to develop programming.

The Education Media Unit, for example, can be more aggressive in such

7. Encourage volunteerism.


(a)       Utilize talents of volunteers for development of public awareness and education programmes.


(b)       Create positive programmes and messages to attract all youth : early years, intermediate/ primary school, advanced- secondary/ post-secondary / tertiary, young adults).


(c)      Target sponsors so that they can sponsor positive programmes.


(d)       Partner with media outlets re strategic distribution of Ads or messages that are developed.


(e)       Provide incentives to local playwrights and actors to create culturally appropriate programming; encourage content providers to participate.



Volunteers could include school children and members of youth groups.

Create positive and attractive messages using: music, dance, poetry, and documentaries.

Create programmes that enhance life skills and career development.


Engage the youngsters in shaping messages and distribution strategy.


Tap into existing local radio and television programmes that already reach young people: e.g. PEP TV, The People’s Show, etc.


Utilize sports, Sporting Figures to spread messages; Public Service Announcements; Ads at sporting events-

e.g. Football, Track and Field

Evaluation and monitoring:

((i)Periodic surveys of young people and their opinions on programming that have been developed.

(ii) Collect data periodically on the number of households with restricted TV channels.



There is need for more collaboration between sending and receiving agencies. The Police and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, where applicable, should have increased cooperation and collaboration with the relevant international agencies to get more background information on the persons at an early stage, prior to a deportee’s arrival in the Federation.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
Enforcement Slogans: (i) Don’t discriminate – Integrate

(ii) Provide criminalization through reintegration.

(ii) Police support second chance

1. Conduct more in-depth interviews with returning deportees.
2.      Develop and implement an on-going surveillance strategy.

3.         Notify the Regional Fusion Centre (RIFC) and the Joint Regional Coordination Centre (JRCC), both in Barbados.

Provide suitable public awareness.
4. Meet with the Legal Department to make recommendations for legislation. Legislation that deals with:

-registration of deportees


–     monitoring

-educating the public

–     change of residence, employment and travel

5. Provide any possible social assistance with a view for rehabilitation.
6. Expand the function of the Returning Nationals Secretariat as a true centre to determine the assistance that is needed for each returned national irrespective of classification. Align the type of intervention that is required for (re)integration into the local society. Provide the Returning Nationals Secretariat with adequate resources to deal with all reintegration processes.
Criminal Deportation cont’d
Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
The STEP can be a means of integration of deportees and used also as a means of monitoring an individual’s progress.
7. Establish half-way house (s) to reintegrate returned nationals through special intervention groups. Utilize PATS (Drug Prevention & Treatment Services Inc.) for Counsellors.
Evaluation and monitoring mechanisms::
(i) Create a data base that would capture the placement of deportees (jobs, other positive activities and programmes);

(ii)  Database to capture any crimes committed by deportees (hopefully showing a reducing trend).

In support of Police Force, evaluate crime data over specific periods.
Document increased surveillance operations and routine patrols.



Teach values to youth at an early age. Stress the importance of aligning expectations with personal efforts. Develop self-esteem and empathy for others.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
Diagnosis and Education
1. Include sensitization and preventative measures in values education programmes. Identify at-risk youth and parents
2. Revive and implement Moral Instruction Curriculum in schools. Facilitate sustained mentorship for youth, adults/parents
3. Teach money management and budgeting; importance of investment and effort. Skills development in children and youth.
4. At national level, finalize Integrity in Public Life Legislation, with accompanying Regulations. Mandate that concessions and favours should be justified and transparently awarded.
5. (a) Strengthen the White Collar Crime Unit of the Police Force

(b) Aggressively and successfully pursue white collar criminals.

Improved public relations on the activities of the White Collar Crime Unit.



Slogans:     My heart, My All!

Mistakes of the heart can make or break you/us!

Respect is due to each other (both males and females) at all times. Stop ‘n’ Think before you proceed to disrespect someone.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
1.      Strengthen the Special Victims Unit of the Police Force to investigate crimes of domestic violence, rape/ statutory rape and other sex offences.

2.      Increased training for SVU Police Officers.

Look at related legislation.

e.g. DNA legislation, legislation that safeguard the victims (rather than humiliate)

Mobilize appropriate resources: the ‘right’ people with ‘right’ attitudes, work ethics in ‘right’ positions.

3. Introduce vigorous sensitization programmes for various categories of persons. Work places, government departments.

Initiate public education and sensitization; use of media, including social media.

4. Provide proper support systems/ support groups for victims of domestic abuse and sexual offences. Mobilize stakeholders and appropriate resources: (i) radio and TV programmes and discussions; (ii) broader strategy/ community ‘skits’ and plays.
Evaluation and monitoring mechanisms:
(i)      Statistics: Number of cases reported to SVU; quality of action taken by SVU; results

(ii)       Social Services; Child molestation records

(iii)       Gender Affairs

(iv)       Court records- Magistrate: injunctions. restraining orders



Most problems that counsellors deal with stem from some form of hurt, trauma or grief. Culturally, hurt, trauma and grief are sometimes trivialised and subjected to the ‘stiff upper lip’ syndrome; that is, ‘suck it up!’. By teaching the stages of grief and re- socializing our boys, especially, to properly express their emotions, instead of encouraging them to suppress it, we would be able to effectively tackle this root cause of crime.

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
Diagnosis and Education
1. Expose various groups to psycho- education: students, PTAs, teachers, Government departments/officials, the church community and First Responders. Use Neals Chitan’s book as a resource: “PULLING THE PLUG”- a practical guide to disarming the downward spiral of Loss, Grief, Depression and Death
2. Teach the stages of grief and what grief looks like. Use Public Service Announcements (PSAs) and social media to sensitize the public.

Provide therapy training and sessions: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Group Therapy

Present the consequences of not addressing hurt, trauma and grief.

3. Introduce the concepts of empathy and compassion as early as pre-schoolers.
4. Provide training in grief counselling. Develop specific programmes that are tailored to particular professions who deal with hurt, grief and trauma.

Slogans: (i) Hurt, trauma and grief: we all experience it. Let’s uplift one another instead of causing more hurt to already broken hearts.

(ii) Reach out! Help out! Speak out!

5. Create a crisis hotline number. Create a crisis intervention plan that clearly outlines the protocols to be adapted in the event of a crisis.
Establish a Talk Show programme for continued sensitization of the public on trauma, grief, loss and hurt.

Hurt, Trauma and Grief cont;d

Crime Prevention Strategies (EDER Framework) Implementation Considerations
Monitoring mechanisms:
Questionnaires pre- and post- programmes
Case studies
Testimonials from participants
Use participants from one group to facilitate another group.
Health Care
6. Training of physicians and nurses to address loss, grief and hurt. Establish Hotlines. Support groups
7. Develop linkages with faith-based organisations (e.g. Christian Council, Evangelical Association, Adventist Church) and other support groups. Strengthen relationship between School Guidance Counsellors and National Counselling Unit.

Establish linkages with funeral homes.


Establish linkages with NGOs and spiritual volunteers.


Intersectoral linkages with other stakeholders such as Social Services.

8. Advocate for an Inter-Faith Chapel at the JNF Hospital (Third phase?) Slogans: Loss, grief and hurt: Don’t face it alone. Get help now!
Going through loss, grief and hurt? Speak Up!
It’s a killer- hurt, trauma and grief! Live & not die! Be free! Now!
Monitoring mechanisms:
Reports from support groups
Feedback from users of services


The following recommendations emanating from the National Crime Reduction Symposium do not relate to any specific root of crime but looks generically at the ‘big picture’ . Elements of some of the recommendations may have already been included in strategies previously outlined and recommended for individual roots of crime. However, the summary listing below provides suggestions that should be aggressively pursued in order to tackle all the roots of crime collectively in the long term.

  1. Reform of the education system is a key component in the long term crime reduction strategy. Reform should include:
    • introduction of a compulsory community service programme for students; identify and approach institutions that will collaborate with schools in community service programmes, perhaps utilising some of the summer vacation;
    • increased in social skills, civics, dispute resolution and personal discipline; (development of an appropriate civics curriculum);
    • enhanced skills training in the arts, music, culture and sport; through well- organised and sustained after- school programmes;
    • expansion and enhancement of TVET;
    • improved use of Information
  2. There should be widespread consultation with the public on the new education strategy before it is
  3. A comprehensive review should be undertaken of the criminal justice
  4. Reform of the prison system should be undertaken and conditions improved to respect the fundamental rights of prisoners, to mandate separation of remand prisoners from convicted prisoners and to establish a system aimed at rehabilitating
  5. Reform of the Police Service is required to better professionalise and to de- politicise the
  6. Civil Society should be encouraged to undertake mentoring and entrepreneurship programmes and other supportive involvement with youth; perhaps tied to volunteer programmes where
  7. A nationwide campaign should be undertaken with public and private sector co- operation aimed at the reversal of prevalent negative attitudes in the society, including the unsavoury aspects of the political structure, low productivity, the entitlements mentality and general disorder and ill
  8. Information technology and the media should be used to project a positive message to young people and the community in
  9. A programme should be developed for direct communication and interaction with gang members by members of the community with requisite expertise (perhaps linked to the Violence Interrupters programme).
  10. The new prison that is to be built should provide accommodation to assist more with the rehabilitation of prisoners, so that they would leave prison much better than when they
  11. A programme is needed that would assist ex-prisoners in obtaining employment when they would have served their time and left
  12. Enforce strict policies as they relate to our immigration System; to ensure that unscrupulous individuals from overseas do not settle and even work in the Federation without thorough inspections and
  13. Politicians on all sides should signal the new thrust towards crime reduction and set an example for the community, including greater interaction on this and other topics of national importance and more civil discourse and behaviour in the National Assembly and other public.


The issue of a national consultation on the decriminalization of marijuana is included as a crime reduction and prevention strategy. The Police have long indicated that marijuana use, production and trafficking is linked to many of the crimes that are being committed, as gang members and individuals react to anything and anyone that interfere with their monetary profits from the production and distribution of marijuana.

Issues surrounding marijuana use were mentioned briefly during the symposium. First, the Presenter, Dr. Neals Chitan, highlighted published medical research that has shown that marijuana use by teenagers can lead to schizophrenia, a sign of mental illness (which is a root of crime). Secondly, during the plenary discussion, the growing ‘social use’ of marijuana was elaborated and it was advanced that there is therefore need for public debate on the decriminalization of marijuana, based on its medicinal/health , social and other uses (for example, religious use by the Rastafarian community).

The Hon. Prime Minister and Minister of National Security has always stressed Government’s commitment to holding national consultation on the marijuana issue. Government has recently indicated that a broad based committee/ commission is being set up that will ‘look at all the issues involved in the use of marijuana and all other matters in relation to it’. The committee will have representation from the Rastafarian community, from health, law enforcement, the schools, and input from such other relevant parties, as the commission goes about its work and hearing from the people. Meanwhile, as long as marijuana remains an illegal drug, the law must be obeyed and a will be enforced.


The most recent Crime Statistics released by the Royal St. Christopher and Nevis Police Force (as at February 2017) show the comparative annual data collected by the Police for the period 2013-2016/2017.  The Police will no doubt continue to provide these summary statistical counts. However, having elaborated the twelve roots of crime, it is necessary for the Ministry of National Security to lead in the compilation of statistics that provide information on these roots of crime. As noted by a participant at the symposium, ‘there is useful national data demonstrating the extent of the psychosocial roots of crime and violence’ and these need to be compiled and disseminated periodically as the overarching strategy unfolds.

Thus, data elements should be compiled on:

  • the annual incidence of child abuse and neglect and associated psychological trauma;
  • the annual incidence of statutory rape and other sexual offences;
  • the annual incidence of child motherhood;
  • the incidence and prevalence of mental illness including addictions and the number of prisoners with the same;
  • the number of criminal deportees;
  • the proportion and types of violent crime committed by youth;
  • the number of youth gangs and their membership;
  • reported cases of bullying in schools;
  • the use of illicit substances among teens and other youth; and
  • crime and violence-related expenditure by the security forces and health services.

These would provide evidence of social dysfunction and enable trends to be monitored.

Other indicators can seek, over time, to capture data specific to the psychosocial roots of crime & violence, to provide a broad monitoring mechanism. There are some data sources within the Ministry of National Security while other data reside in other ministries and will require cooperation from such partner ministries. A local focal point has to be identified to undertake the tasks related to coordinating such a new statistical framework, correspondence, data collection and collation, and presenting the data in a form for dissemination, discussion, and evidence-based decision making.




Developed & Copyrighted by

International Social Skill Consultant Crime Reduction Specialist


A Presentation of “The Power of Your Decisions” Series Designed and copyrighted ©2007

A comprehensive guide to the strategic planning and development of national and local social programs specifically designed to target crime and violence reduction in a sustainable manner


  1. To help administrators, program designers, planners and facilitators discover the futility of “Band-Aid” methods in crime reduction planning, thus understanding the need for methodical, systematic, relevant and antidotal strategies that will address underlying issues
  2. To help the aforementioned groups understand that successfully solving crime and violence involves a process of strengthening and nurturing resolve, decision making, self esteem/image and focus at an early age in children, while simultaneously rebuilding the same in individuals who are predisposed or exhibit a propensity to criminal attitudes and
  3. To present the deep root causes of some major prevalent crimes and anti-social behaviours that plague our 21st century
  4. To engage in round table sharing and discussions of the material presented while customizing its applications to the various cultures, races or social classes engaged in this


*The biological, sociological and neurological dysfunctions that cause mental illness.

*The inability to recognize the symptoms of mental illness.

*The genetic predisposition of mental illness on off-springs.

*The negative cultural stigmas which can be associated to mental illness.

*The chronic denial or unwillingness to accept that some-one close to us may be suffering with mental illness and therefore left untreated.

*The untreated eroding emotional trauma that can finally render an individual unable to further cope.

*The combination of social dysfunctions in a person’s life that can create such deep emotional damage that it com-promises their ability to function at a critical thinking and processing level, resulting in a complex prognosis.

*The inability or unwillingness of the individual to comply with prescription order thus compromising his/her sanity which can lead to horrendous and tragic results.

Some forms of results

*Theft, arson and wide range of common crimes

  • Maternal Infanticides
  • Family & Domestic Homicides/Suicides
  • Mass indiscriminate and random murders

*Ghastly acts of homicide including dismemberment and cannibalism


*The social dysfunctions and issues that pressure people to seek coping mechanisms

*The adventure and curiosity of the spirit of youthfulness

*The genetic predisposition of off-springs to drug use

*The negative peer pressure and coercion that ruin parental and moral training and influence drug use

*The misdiagnosis, pharmaceutical conspiracies and ruth-lessness that create and drive prescription drug users into addicts

*The development of compulsive cycles that drives individu-als from escape mode to addiction

*The demon of addiction that drives addicts to satisfy the craving by any means necessary.

Some forms of results

  • Irresponsible Reporting
  • Domestic Theft
  • BNEs
  • Panhandling
  • Drug Trafficking
  • Gun/Gangs Turf Warfare/ Homicides


*Quick unprocessed reactions

*Non-cognitive responses

*Emotionally Charged Responses

*Situationally triggered responses

  • Impulsive Reaction to Matters of the Heart

Some forms of results


*Threats of bodily harm or death

*Road rage

*Unplanned Domestic Violence/ Domestic Homicides

*Spontaneous violence or homicides with makeshift weapons


*The inability to deal with volatile confrontational situations

*The unwillingness to negotiate peaceful and respectful resolutions

*The triggering of the defence mechanism (especially in males)

*Reciprocal response involving equal or greater levels of reactions

*Dealing with embarrassments in the presence of friends and loved ones

Some forms of results


*Road Rage

*Threats of Bodily Harm or Death

*Domestic Violence/Homicides

*Acts of bodily harm or homicides with makeshift weapons

*Planned revenge with weapon of choice


*Low self-esteem due to dysfunctional homes and lack of parental nurturing, guidance and affirmation

*Impact of absent fathers to shape identity

*Need for belonging  because of poor self-perception

*Inability to integrate within desired group or role

*Inability to take a stand despite opposition

*Low morale and self image because of recurring failure

*Desire for group support to enhance self image

*Under-developed sexual identity and socializing habits

Some forms of results

*Gang Involvement/ Crime

*Accomplice to crime

*Homicide/ Suicide

*Bullying (Victim/Perpetrator)

*Gangster, Gang Leader and Gang Turf Wars

*Prostitution/ Pimping/ Johns

*Car Theft/ Shop Lifting (Clothes)

*Sexual Fantasies/ Infidelity / Domestic Violence/ Pedophilia

*Pornography, Sexual Abuse, Harassment, Rape & Serial Rape


*The frustration experienced by individuals who have to cope with consequences resulting from their own or someone else’s delinquent action

*The unwillingness to adhere to guidelines set by authority figures or judicial system

*The engineered and well orchestrated plan to avoid consequences even if it involves getting further into trouble

^The resolve to die if necessary to escape consequences

Some forms of results


*Threats of vandalism, bodily harm or death

*Acts of bodily harm or death to anyone in the escape way

*Threats or acts of bodily hrm or death to perpetrator or authority figure


*Drug use



*The undue sensationalizing of criminal and violent acts by irresponsible media reporting and music producers

*The possible ‘Copy Cat’ attitude of individuals who are pre-disposed to criminal and violent behaviour influenced by the over-reporting by News Agencies of criminal acts and the hero-making of criminals in the media

*The perpetration of crime, violence and ghastly acts in mainstream and social media and on the world wide web

*The over sexualizing of TV messages and the sexual perversions and pornography in movies that create unhealthy sexual behaviour in individuals

*The urban gangster lifestyle and behaviour perpetrated by popular music and admired by 21st century youth

*The combination of explicit lyrics and rhythm patterns that drive negative, disrespectful and vulgar messages

Some forms of results

*Glorifying of crime and violence

*Disrespect for Authority

*Online Bullying

*Serial Rape / Sexual Assaults

*Defiance & Rebellion

*Law Breaking

*Gang and Gun Activity

*Mass Rioting



*The migration impact on children from third world into large demoralized urban centres of North America and the UK

*The social dysfunctions of family, school and community life attached to ‘ Big City’ living

*Being sucked into the guns, gangs, sex, drugs and crime culture of ‘Big City’ Ghetto living and paying the price of involvement

*The double penalizing by ‘ Big City’ judicial systems, imposing jail sentences on the criminals they have grown and then unfairly deporting them to their homeland to be an awful ‘blessing’

  • The impact and challenges of severing of primary and significant connections to their ‘Big City’ homes and the stigma, hardship, revenge and attitude accompanying the deportee forced to adapt to ‘Small Island’ living

Some forms of results

*Theft, Bank Hold Ups

*Crime Against Tourists

*Sexual Assaults

*Night Life, Prostitution & Pimping

*Drug Trafficking

*Gang & Gun Activity


*The insatiable appetite of individuals for more and more things, money and prestige

*The discontent of the human heart

*The injustice perpetrated on ‘perceived’ less important people of an inferior status by those believed to be more important or superior

*The resolution of individuals to do anything and everything possible to satisfy their selfish desires and cravings

Some forms of results

*Identity Fraud

*Money Laundering & Embezzlement

*Tax Evasion

*Armed Robbery

*Prostitution / Pimping/ Johns/ Sex Slaves

*Drug Trafficking & Related Crime

*Bank Hold-Ups

*Infidelity/ Domestic Violence/ Domestic Homicides

*Obstruction of Justice


*Survival of the fittest

*Hunger and starvation


*Unemployable or lack of training

*Lack of jobs and business opportunities

*Poverty without education

*Persistent grief due to personal unexpected Loss and Trauma

Some forms of results

*Stealing for personal use

*Stealing for commerce

*Drug use

*Drug trafficking

*Bank Hold-Ups

*Armed Robbery & Homicides

*Prostitution & Pimping

*Combination of every conceivable crime



*The poorly developed self-concept of individuals

*The possible mirroring of disrespectful behaviour by offspring

*The possessive attitude of partners towards each other

*The premature involvement in sexual behaviour by attracted individuals

*The uncontrollable jealous behaviour of partners

*The inability of individuals to deal with and move on beyond relational loss

*The mischievous attitude of an individual to derail followup relationships of an ex- partner

*The final resolve to intentionally deal with the perpetrator of the hurt

Some forms of results 


*Domestic Violence

*Emotional Abuse/ Harassment

*Abductions/ Torture

*Sexual Abuse


*Murder Suicide


*The pain experienced due to physical, sexual and emotional hurt

*The psychological impact of bullying

*The hurt of broken and disintegrating relationships and their effects on children

*The unmanaged hurt, grief and negative impact caused by unexpected death

*The negative labeling and profiling  of children

*The psychological hurt and emotional scars from wrongful blame and its awful consequences

*The hurt and pain from parental favoritism Vs the Cinderella syndrome

*The ravaging spirit of revenge and avenge that can consume an individual because of untreated hurt

*The hopelessness of unmanaged and untreated hurt and pain that end in personal and mass tragedy

Some forms of results



*Personal & Gang Revenge



*Murder Suicide

*School/ Public Shooting Sprees

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