Needs: The universal means or resources required to maintain life (satisfy life-interests) and realize life-value.

The real life-requirements of living beings, defined by Prof John McMurtry as that without which their organic capacities are reduced.

Source: What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11.