Argumentation: The give and take of arguments in a dispute or the body of arguments used to try to support a controversial position. In this context (or practice), one side constructs and forwards arguments to an audience, which may then raise questions, doubts or objections. The arguer typically responds by producing arguments to answer those questions, doubts or objects,… Read More
Argumentation (or Reasoning) Schemes: Patterns of reasoning or argument — both very general ones, and also more detailed instances of those general ones.These schemes thus represent types of argument or reasoning. Accordingly, there are schemes in general, for example, for argument from analogy or argument from authority. (General analogy: “X is like Y, and Y has property P, so probably/presumably X has property P also.” General Authority: “A says S; A is an authority about… Read More
Argumentation theory (or the theory of argumentation): The multidisciplinary inquiry that studies argument and argumentation with a view to dealing with normative, conceptual, and empirical issues. For example an important normative question is: What are the norms for argument, and how are they to be identified, justified? And important conceptual question is: What are the various… Read More
Atomism: doctrine according to which material objects are aggregates of simpler elements or atoms. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11.
Augustinian Christianity: Influential turn of Christianity led by the now sainted Doctor of the Western Church (354-430) having nothing to do with the teachings of Jesus in which doctrines of original sin, undeserved grace, and afterlife without bodies become prominent, and hatred of heresy, paganism and the corruptible body pleasures are featured. See also Platonism.… Read More
Axiology: philosophy of values, of their nature and of value judgments. From the Greek, axioma, “what is thought to be worthy”, the ultimate, but under-theorized category of value reason, ideally building from rationally self-evident bases or axioms of value a complete system of value (aesthetic, epistemological, moral, etc.) with unlimited validity across domains. Onto-axiology is axiology which… Read More