Argument: set of statements in which one (conclusion) follows logically from the others (premises). Sequence of sentences such that some of the sentences (premises) are offered as reasons for accepting another part (conclusion). Typically in the tradition, a certain type of cognitive (or rational) product in which reasons are offered in support of a claim or thesis. The… Read More

Argument form

Argument form: Logical structure, pattern or skeleton of an argument. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 


Argumentation: The give and take of arguments in a dispute or the body of arguments used to try to support a controversial position. In this context (or practice), one side constructs and forwards arguments to an audience, which may then raise questions, doubts or objections. The arguer typically responds by producing  arguments to  answer  those questions,  doubts   or objects,… Read More

Argumentation (or Reasoning) Schemes:

Argumentation (or Reasoning) Schemes: Patterns of reasoning or argument — both very general ones, and also more detailed instances of those general ones.These schemes thus represent types of argument or reasoning. Accordingly, there are schemes in general, for example, for argument from analogy or argument from authority. (General analogy: “X is like Y, and Y has property P, so probably/presumably X has property P also.” General Authority: “A says S; A is an authority about… Read More

Argumentation theory (or the theory of argumentation)

Argumentation theory (or the theory of argumentation): The multidisciplinary inquiry that studies argument and argumentation with a view to dealing with normative, conceptual, and empirical issues. For example an important normative question is: What are the norms for argument, and how are they to be identified, justified? And important conceptual question is: What are the various… Read More