Cause (Formal)

Cause (Formal): In Aristotle, the pattern immanent to natural substances which organizes and structures their development. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Certainty

Certainty: condition of freedom from doubt. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Civil commons

Civil commons: A unifying concept to designate social constructs which enable universal access to life goods (e.g., public education, healthcare, parks and pensions), with life support systems as primary civil commons so far as society protects and enables their reproduction and provision for all of its members. A unifying concept to designate any and all social constructs which… Read More

Classical Liberalism

Classical Liberalism: A social-political philosophy first systematically elaborated in the seventeenth century whose inner logic of argument maintains that individuals are self-maximizing property-holders with inviolable rights to protection from external political power from above (the “state”) and social power (the majority) from below. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time,… Read More

Classical theory of probability

Classical theory of probability: Theory designed to obtain numerical values for probability based on logical relations among sentences. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Cognition

Cognition: internal structures and processes involved in the obtaining and use of knowledge, comprising the faculties of sensation, perception, memory, language and reasoning. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford,… Read More

Coherence Principle

Coherence Principle: See Life Coherence Principle Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Coherence theory of truth

Coherence theory of truth: ‘p is true’ means ‘p is consistent with all other propositions accepted as true’. That a belief is true so far as it is consistent with a whole system of beliefs. See Life coherence principle. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John… Read More

Collective agency

Collective agency: A concept which is little understood in philosophy and the social sciences which dominantly focus on, respectively, agent-relative methods of analysis or aggregates of individual choices. It is best understood by the rule systems people(s) make or follow as societies – the ultimate and ongoing choice process of societies which govern the lives… Read More

Collective choice

Collective choice: A concept ruled out by atomic or “agent-relative” methods of analysis, but implicit in civil commons. See also social choice. Sen, A (1998), The Possibility of Social Choice”, 37pp. Trinity College, Cambridge: Nobel Lecture [This lecture provides an incomparably rich documentation of the literature on social choice, demonstrating there is no conception of… Read More