Dualism: doctrine according to which the world consists of, or is explicable in terms of, two fundamental substances. A central and controversial doctrine in philosophy in which reality is conceived as divided into two unbridgeable and incommensurable orders of being – primarily, mind and body, res cogitans and res extensa, the dualism instituted in modern Western… Read More


Dualities: Dualistic divisions have been perpetual in philosophy and religion since the ancients – spirit-matter, man-nature, temporal-eternal, appearance-reality, life-death, self-other, and subject-object. Krishna in the Bhagavad-gita revealingly adds the false duality of victory-loss. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with… Read More