Universal: general category which exists independently of its particular instances (realism) or is merely a convenient designation (nominalism). Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Universal life goods/necessities

Universal life goods/necessities: All goods without which human life capacities are reduced or destroyed: atmosphere (breathable air, open space and light); organism (clean water, nourishing foods, waste disposal); home and habitat (shelter and a life-enhancing environment); care through time (love, safety and healthcare); human culture (music, language, art, play and sport); human vocation (meaningful work of value… Read More


Universals: Applied to general terms like ‘red’, ‘table’ or ‘human being’ in which an ancient debate from Plato through medieval scholasticism to philosophy today has involved the issue whether ‘universals’ refer to eternal forms independent of their instances (“idealism” or “realism”) or are explicable as merely convenient designations for resembling particulars (“nominalism”). Source: ‘What is Good?… Read More