Positivism

Positivism: doctrine according to which true knowledge is achieved only through modern empirical science. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Postmodernism

Postmodernism: Referring to a wide variety of writers forming a recently dominant movement/school of thought whose unifying characteristic is repudiation of all universal principles of reality, truth, value or interpretation in favor of contingent particularity and perspectival modes of thought. See also Linguistic turn. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place… Read More

Potentiality

Potentiality: In Aristotle, that which the souls of living things encode as the metaphysical basis of their life-activity. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Pragmatic theory of truth

Pragmatic theory of truth: ‘p is true’ means ‘action in accordance with p leads to satisfactory results’. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Pragmatic utility

Pragmatic utility: The value of scientific hypotheses (including laws and theories), all things considered, including the moral, political and economic consequences of anticipated action based on those hypotheses. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia… Read More

Pragmatism

Pragmatism: An a-posteriori theory of knowledge and value whose defining idea is “what works”. Naturalistic, experimentalist, developmental, and instrumentalist in its various forms, it repudiates all dualisms, but like science does not answer the question ‘works for what?’ Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry,… Read More

Primary Axiom of Value

Primary Axiom of Value: An axiom formally expressing the first and ultimate principle of all value and disvalue, and the measures of each across time, place or culture i.e., x is of value if and only if, and to the extent that, x consists in or enables more coherently inclusive thought/felt being/action. See also Fields… Read More

Primary health care

Primary health care: Primary health care is essential health care made accessible at a cost a country and community can afford, with methods that are practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable. Reference: Alma Ata Declaration, WHO, Geneva, 1978 The Alma-Ata Declaration, also emphasises that everyone should have access to primary health care, and everyone should… Read More

Principle of Beneficence

Principle of Beneficence: One ought to act so that one’s actions tend to impartially improve the quality of life. Source: ‘What is Good? What is Bad? The Value of All Values across Time, Place and Theories’ by John McMurtry, Philosophy and World Problems, Volume I-III, UNESCO in partnership with Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Oxford, 2004-11. 

Prisoner’s Dilemma

Prisoner’s Dilemma: Famous contemporary problem of rational choice across philosophy and the social sciences in which the dilemma shows that purely self-maximizing decision does not effectively self-maximize. Myriad attempted solutions do not find the problem in the logical structure of choice itself in which pre-set dyadic choices rule out communicative cooperation and all interests beyond self-maximization. (See also Collective… Read More