October 8-12, 1974 a symposium on “Patterns of Resource Use, Environment and Development Strategies” was convened in Cocoyoc, Mexico by the directors of United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Maurice Strong and Gamani Corea. The rapporteurs were Barbara Ward for resource use and the environment and Johan Galtung for development strategies. That part of THE COCOYOC DECLARATION—adopted by the participants–is reproduced below, with a certain sadness: it is as valid today, more than 30 years later. The two directors received a three feet long cable, from the US State Department, rejecting the declaration entirely. Signed by: Henry Kissinger.
Every religion contains, in varying degrees, elements of the soft and the hard. For the sake of world peace, dialogue within religions and among them must strengthen the softer aspects.
Below are two emails I penned yesterday and disseminated which I am reproducing here (with minor spelling and grammatical corrections). Dear Colleagues: It is fitting that this be shared as I have been following Prof Werner’s work over several years and there is life-value consilience between McMurtry’s (LVOA), Galtung’s (Peace Studies), Eisler’s (Cultural Transformation… Read More
ON THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA FOR WORLD-WIDE SECURITY AND PEACE by Johan Galtung Université Nouvelle Transnationale 154 rue de Tolbiac F75013 Paris July 1985 Reproduced from: https://www.transcend.org/galtung/papers/On%20the%20Role%20of%20the%20Media%20for%20Worldwide%20Security%20and%20Peace.pdf On Data, Theories and Values What the media do and what researchers do are not that different. Both of them relate to empirical reality and are interested in… Read More
Reproduced from: https://www.transcend.org/galtung/papers/The%20Doctrine%20Of%20Just%20War.pdf THE DOCTRINE OF JUST WAR: JUST THAT, WAR! (OR MORE WAR THAN JUST) By Johan Galtung, Peace and Conflict Studies, Univ. of Queensland There is no scarcity of literature in this field, much of it permutations around the basic core of “I am of course against war, but – -“. So let it… Read More
School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution Published on Mar 31, 2016 For more information go to scar.gmu.edu/lynch-lecture http://digilib.gmu.edu/jspui/bitstream/handle/1920/10665/ICAR_occasional_paper_11.pdf
Reproduced from: https://www.transcend.org/tms/2013/12/who-runs-the-world-the-subconscious/ Who Runs The World? The Subconscious(*) EDITORIAL, 30 December 2013 #306 | Johan Galtung, 30 Dec 2013 – TRANSCEND Media Service Not one or a group of persons, not one or a group of countries. But they may serve as instruments for scripts engraved on the deeper recesses of their minds, not the… Read More
How a life-valued versus money-valued dichotomy makes a world of money-valued indifference to peace, and how the cognitive maps of Carl Jung, Johan Galtung and John McMurtry make a world of life-valued difference to healing that indifference! Have we collectively inherited a money-valued as opposed to a life-valued collective unconscious? Does money-value enable cultural violence… Read More
In a previous post entitled Embracing the paradigm shift – from the principalities of darkness to the principles that value life, I opined: “Unless we come face to face and heart to heart with the demons within and be able to verbalise that which is repressed within and projected onto others without, the vicious cylce of… Read More
© Journal of Peace Research. vol. 27. no. 3. 1990. pp. 291-305
College of Social Sciences, University of Hawaii, Manoa
This article introduces a concept of ‘cultural violence’, and can be seen as a follow-up of the author’s introduction of the concept of ‘structural violence’ over 20 years ago (Galtung. 1969). Cultural violence is defined here as any aspect of a culture that can be used to legitimize violence in its direct or structural form. Symbolic violence built into a culture does not kill or maim like direct violence or the violence built into the structure. However, it is used to legitimize either or both, as for instance in the theory of a Herrenvolk, or a superior race. The relations between direct, structural and cultural violence are explored, using a violence triangle and a violence strata image, with various types of casual flows. Examples of cultural violence are indicated, using a division of culture into religion and ideology, art and language, and empirical and formal science. The theory of cultural violence is then related to two basic points in Gandhism, the doctrines of unity of life and of unity of means and ends. Finally, the inclusion of culture as a major focus of peace research is seen not only as deepening the quest for peace, but also as a possible contribution to the as yet non-existent general discipline of ‘culturology’.
*Presented as a lecture at the University of Melbourne Peace Studies Group, March 1989; at the summer Schools in Peace Studies at the University of Oslo and the University of Hawaii, July 1989; and at the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, August 1989. I am indebted to discussants at all these places.